The Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) was established in 1997 to address research and publishing ethics violations. Its goal was to identify workable solutions to the problems and create best practices. It is a non-profit organization that offers a discussion forum and guidance to scientific editors. The guidelines were developed from a prototype drafted by individual committee members and then circulated for extensive comment. These guidelines are meant to be advisory rather than mandatory and change over time.
The European Commission’s (EC) Medical Devices Regulation (MDR) and In-vitro Diagnostics Regulation (IVDR) have been the most significant developments for medical device manufacturers willing to enter the European market. These regulations will allow the EU (European Union) regulators to have the required control and oversight of the medical devices entering into the market. The MDR and IVDR aim to ensure that products are effective, safe, as well as freely and fairly traded throughout the region.